Chesterfield was an early farming hamlet in Oxford County, first settled in the 1830's. By the 1840's it had a store and a Presbyterian church. A post office was added in 1851. It later grew to include a blacksmith, wagon-maker and a school.
During the 1880's and 90's, Chesterfield was a thriving little hamlet with a population of around 150. Most of it's businesses were farm-based and included a number of livestock breeders and dealers and of course a veterinarian.
Like many farming hamlets, Chesterfield began to decline in the early part of the 20th century. Improved roads and the advantage of the automobile, enabled farmers to travel to larger centres that offered a wider range of services. As time went by, Chesterfield slowly began to revert back to farmland.
One institution that remained active was the former Presbyterian church, now known as the Chesterfield United Church. The church continues to hold regular services and maintains an exceptionally large and elaborate cemetery. The cemetery contains a number of World War I veterans as well as a striking cenotaph, built during the 1920's. In recognition of those who died while in service to their country, Remembrance Day services are held annually at the site.